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Signs and symptoms that are characteristic for depression include changes in the setpoint of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system, which in the majority of these patients result in altered regulation of corticotropin (ACTH) and cortisol secretory activity. More refined analysis of the HPA system revealed that corticosteroid receptor (CR) signaling is impaired in major depression, resulting among other changes, in increased production and secretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH, also frequently abbreviated CRF) in various brain regions postulated to be involved in the causality of depression. This article summarizes the clinical and preclinical data, supporting the concept that impaired CR signaling is a key mechanism in the pathogenesis of depression. Mouse genetics, allowing for selective inactivation of genes relevant for HPA regulation and molecular pharmacology, dissecting the intracellular cascade of CR signaling, are the most promising future research fields, suited for identifying genes predisposing to depression. Focusing on these two research lines may also allow to gain insight into understanding how current antidepressants work and further, how more specific targets for future antidepressant drugs can be identified.