I am a 33 year old vegetarian woman with chronic fatigue, tingling in my legs(sometimes cramps), concentration and processing problems. I have recently had to reduce my hours at work. My ferritin levels were last tested at 16 and B12 at 226 despite taking B12 everyday for 6 months and eating lots of cheese and eggs. Last year I had a vitamin D deficiently and needed to sleep 10-12 hours a day but since that has been rectified I only get around 5 hours of broken sleep a night which was normal in the past but now makes me desperate for sleep but unable to get any. My GP has very recently given me liquid ferritin to increase my iron and melatonin for sleep but nothing for B12. Should I press for treatment for B12 and would this effect my sleep?
The diameter of the common bile duct was measured with sonography in 173 children aged 1 day to 13 years (mean, years; median, years) who were examined for reasons other than hepatic or biliary tract disease. Results were subjected to regression analysis and compared with similar measurements of the extrahepatic portal vein and hepatic artery. The size of the gallbladder was subjectively estimated as distended, moderately full, and contracted. Differences in the diameter of the common bile duct in these three groups were evaluated with the Mann-Whitney U test.
A critical shortage of donor organs for treating end-stage organ failure highlights the urgent need for generating organs from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). Despite many reports describing functional cell differentiation, no studies have succeeded in generating a three-dimensional vascularized organ such as liver. Here we show the generation of vascularized and functional human liver from human iPSCs by transplantation of liver buds created in vitro (iPSC-LBs). Specified hepatic cells (immature endodermal cells destined to track the hepatic cell fate) self-organized into three-dimensional iPSC-LBs by recapitulating organogenetic interactions between endothelial and mesenchymal cells. Immunostaining and gene-expression analyses revealed a resemblance between in vitro grown iPSC-LBs and in vivo liver buds. Human vasculatures in iPSC-LB transplants became functional by connecting to the host vessels within 48 hours. The formation of functional vasculatures stimulated the maturation of iPSC-LBs into tissue resembling the adult liver. Highly metabolic iPSC-derived tissue performed liver-specific functions such as protein production and human-specific drug metabolism without recipient liver replacement. Furthermore, mesenteric transplantation of iPSC-LBs rescued the drug-induced lethal liver failure model. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the generation of a functional human organ from pluripotent stem cells. Although efforts must ensue to translate these techniques to treatments for patients, this proof-of-concept demonstration of organ-bud transplantation provides a promising new approach to study regenerative medicine.