The CT with DEX followed by L-arg significantly increased the survival of mice injected with a lethal dose of LPS. Monotherapy with either DEX or L-arg given at the same dose and time did not increase the survival of the mice injected with LPS. DEX administration could significantly reduce the levels of serum TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IFN-gamma, aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), and nitrite. DEX also down-regulated the expression of liver-inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and up-regulated the levels of serum anti-inflammatory cytokines like TGF-beta1 and IL-4, hepatic and splenic arginase, in LPS-injected mice. The enhanced therapeutic effect of CT correlated with reduced pathological symptoms, decreased Th1 cytokines, increased TGF-beta1 and arginase levels compared to the mice administered with either of the monotherapies. The CT group had significantly increased expression of hepatic Hsp 70 and reduced septic shock associated histopathology, in lung and liver, compared to the mice treated with either DEX or L-arg.