Potential oral or head and neck findings of bulimia and anorexia include dental erosion, xerostomia, increased rate of caries, and sialadenosis. Vomiting exposes teeth to acidic gastric contents, which leads to enamel erosion. The erosion pattern tends to involve the lingual surfaces of the maxillary anterior teeth ( Figure 12 ) and, in severe cases, the buccal surfaces of the posterior mandibular teeth. 39 Patients may have dental sensitivity to cold or sweet stimuli. Xerostomia may be caused by medications often used by patients with bulimia or anorexia (., antidepressants, diuretics, laxatives), as well as by vomiting and excessive exercise. 40 Because the buffering and cleansing properties of saliva are important for prevention of tooth decay, xerostomia leads to increased caries risk. Additionally, sialadenosis affects approximately 25 percent of patients with bulimia; bilateral parotid enlargement is the most common presentation. 41
For yoga compared to non-yoga exercise controls (4 trials; 394 participants), there was very-low-certainty evidence for little or no difference in back-related function at three months (SMD -, 95% CI - to ; corresponding to a change in the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire of MD -, 95% - to ) and six months (SMD -, 95% CI - to ; corresponding to a change in the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire of MD -, 95% - to ), and no information on back-related function after six months. There was very low-certainty evidence for lower pain on a 0-100 scale at seven months ( MD -, 95% CI - to -), and no information on pain at three months or after seven months. Based on information from three trials, there was low-certainty evidence for no difference in the risk of adverse events between yoga and non-yoga exercise controls ( RD 1%, 95% CI -4% to 6%).
After an introductory section that summarizes the characteristics of infusion reactions and different approaches to classifying them, this review will focus on commonly used conventional cytotoxic drugs with a moderate to high incidence of infusion reactions, and the ways in which these reactions can be treated and/or prevented. Infusion reactions in patients receiving therapeutic monoclonal antibodies for cancer treatment are discussed separately, as are other cutaneous adverse effects associated with chemotherapy. (See "Infusion-related reactions to therapeutic monoclonal antibodies used for cancer therapy" and "Cutaneous side effects of conventional chemotherapy agents" .)